Hyponatremia can be caused by heart, kidney, or liver problems, diarrhea, sweating, vomiting, dehydration, or certain drugs and medications. Since sodium is lost in sweat, hyponatremia also can be caused by drinking too much water during exercise, especially extended, intense exercise, such as a marathon or triathlon.
What causes sodium levels to be low?
A low sodium level has many causes, including consumption of too many fluids, kidney failure, heart failure, cirrhosis, and use of diuretics. Symptoms result from brain dysfunction.
Can children have low sodium?
Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte disorder in children. It is generally defined as plasma sodium of less than 135 mmol/l. Sodium homeostasis is essential for maintaining intravascular volume and is tightly linked to water balance.
Can low sodium be serious?
Low blood sodium is common in older adults, especially those who are hospitalized or living in long-term care facilities. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia can include altered personality, lethargy and confusion. Severe hyponatremia can cause seizures, coma and even death.
What should a child’s sodium level be at?
Daily recommended sodium intake guidelines for children and adolescents are as follows: Ages 1-3: Less than 1,500 milligrams. Ages 4-8: Less than 1,900 milligrams. Ages 9-13: Less than 2,200 milligrams.
How do you fix low sodium?
Treatment for low blood sodium
- cutting back on fluid intake.
- adjusting the dosage of diuretics.
- taking medications for symptoms such as headaches, nausea, and seizures.
- treating underlying conditions.
- infusing an intravenous (IV) sodium solution.
Which organ is most affected by hyponatremia?
Hyponatremia occurs when your blood sodium level goes below 135 mEq/L. When the sodium level in your blood is too low, extra water goes into your cells and makes them swell. This swelling can be dangerous especially in the brain, since the brain cannot expand past the skull.
Can you recover from low sodium levels?
Hyponatremia can result from multiple diseases that often are affecting the lungs, liver or brain, heart problems like congestive heart failure, or medications. Most people recover fully with their doctor’s help.
Will eating more salt help hyponatremia?
In elderly patients with a diet poor in protein and sodium, hyponatremia may be worsened by their low solute intake. The kidney’s need to excrete solutes aids in water excretion. An increase in dietary protein and salt can help improve water excretion.
How do you raise your sodium level?
Intravenous (IV) fluids with a high-concentration of sodium, and/or diuretics to raise your blood sodium levels. Loop Diuretics – also known as “water pills” as they work to raise blood sodium levels, by making you urinate out extra fluid.
What does low sodium mean in a blood test?
If your results show lower than normal sodium levels, it may indicate: Diarrhea. Vomiting. Kidney disease. Addison disease, a condition in which your body’s adrenal glands don’t produce enough of certain types of hormones.
What foods raise sodium levels?
- Smoked, cured, salted or canned meat, fish or poultry including bacon, cold cuts, ham, frankfurters, sausage, sardines, caviar and anchovies.
- Frozen breaded meats and dinners, such as burritos and pizza.
- Canned entrees, such as ravioli, spam and chili.
- Salted nuts.
- Beans canned with salt added.
Can low sodium cause anxiety?
If you have really high or low levels of electrolytes like sodium or potassium, it can cause anxiety or panic-like symptoms. These include shortness of breath, confusion, and rapid heartbeat. You might also be irritable, lightheaded, fatigued, or have headaches or nausea.
How is pediatric hypernatremia treated?
In cases of hypernatremia caused by sodium overload, sodium-free intravenous fluid (eg, 5% dextrose in water) may be used, and a loop diuretic may be added. The serum sodium concentration should be monitored frequently to avoid too-rapid correction of hypernatremia.
Can low sodium cause seizures to toddlers?
Electrolyte imbalances—normally hyponatremia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia—can also be a relevant cause of seizures in pediatrics.
How much sodium can toddler have?
What is the Recommended Daily Sodium Intake for Kids? Healthy sodium recommendations range from 1500 mg per day for kids 1–3, 1,900 mg per day for kids ages 4–8 and 2,300 mg for children 14 years and older.